Klaas Willaert

Protest at Sea against Deep Sea Mining: Lawfulness, Limits and Remedies

(2021) International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law. 36(4). p.672-683

Protest at sea has been on the rise and this trend has now also manifested itself within the context of deep sea mining. In May 2021, Greenpeace activists approached the Normand Energy, a ship chartered by Belgian deep sea mining contractor Global Sea Mineral Resources (GSR), and interfered with its operations by painting slogans on the hull of the vessel and attaching banners to the umbilical cord of GSR’s prototype nodule collector. On the basis of applicable international principles and provisions, such actions can be considered unlawful, but adequate enforcement and effective remedies are lacking.