The Rine: a transnational economic history
Author(s)
Theo Notteboom
Publication

Maritime gateways and barge connectivity: container barge transport on the Rhine

(2017) The Rhine : a transnational economic history. In Economic and Social History of Modern Europe = Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte des modernen Europa p.311-334

The Rhine with its tributary rivers is by far the most important inland waterway system in Europe. This paper deals with the historical and present relationships between the Rhine and the gateway ports in the Rhine-Scheldt Delta. The focus is on the inland waterway transport of containerized cargo. After a conceptual discussion on port systems and barge networks we provide a detailed historical analysis of barge connectivity between the seaport system and the Rhine basin. The recent stagnation in barge volume growth on the Rhine has shifted the focus of market players to the improvement of the logistics quality of barge connectivity. We conclude the paper with a plea for the development of a transnational logistics strategy for the Rhine basin in which barge transport has a key position to play.

Book chapter
Transportation Research
Author(s)
Min-Ho Ha
Zaili Yang
Theo Notteboom
Adolf KY Ng
Man-Wook Heo
Publication

Revisiting port performance measurement : a hybrid multi-stakeholder framework for the modelling of port performance indicators

(2017) TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART E-LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORTATION REVIEW . 103. p.1-16

This study develops a new port performance measurement model by taking the perspectives from different port stakeholders. The novelty lies in the modelling of interdependencies among port performance measures, and the combination of weights of interdependent measures with both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the measures from multiple stakeholders for quantitative port performance measurement. It represents an effective performance measurement tool and offers a diagnostic instrument for performance evaluation and/or monitoring of ports and terminals so as to satisfy different requirements of various port stakeholders in a flexible manner.

Article
Transportation Research
Author(s)
Han Cui
Theo Notteboom
Publication

Modelling emission control taxes in port areas and port privatization levels in port competition and co-operation sub-games

(2017) TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT. 56. p.110-128

Using a game theory approach, this paper analyses a situation in which the government imposes a certain emission tax on vessels and port operations for emission control in port areas. Two ports are considered: a purely private port and a landlord (partial public) port. These two ports are in Cournot or Bertrand competition or cooperation with differentiated service. Our model outcomes lead to the following conclusions. First, the optimal private level of port 2 under Cournot and Bertrand competitions varies between fully private and highly public concerned port, while government will prefer a highly public concerned or close to highly public concerned port in the cooperation scenario. Second, government will have to make more and stricter efforts to enhance environmental protection in the situation of port cooperation (monopoly) than in the case of inter-port competition, and all the optimal emission tax should be always lower than the marginal emission damage. Third, port privatization has a non-monotonous effect on ports’ environmental damage in the inter-port competition scenarios and a monotonous decreasing effect in the cooperation scenario. Fourth, the total emission tax revenue is always higher than the overall environmental damage in the cooperative scenario, and it may or may not be able to cover the whole environment damage in Cournot and Bertrand competitions. Finally, the government may face a trade-off among environmental protection, maximizing social welfare, satisfying individual motivation, when considering port cooperation (monopoly).

Article
Ecological restoration
Author(s)
A. Telesetsky
A. Cliquet
A. Akhtar-Khavari
Publication

Ecological Restoration in International Environmental Law

Routledge, 2017, 318p.

Book
Port Management
Author(s)
Indra Vonck and Theo Notteboom (UGent)
Publication

Quantifying resilience in seaports: an application to ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range

(2017) Port management : cases in port geography, operations and policy. p.139-175

The port industry is facing unseen levels of uncertainty and this calls for new ways of managing concepts like hazard and risk. Amongst a multitude of key- and buzzwords, like risk management, sustainability, flexibility and many others, we find the concept of resilience, a term intended to strengthen the human capacity to anticipate, resist and recover from adversity. This notion is used in a multitude of disciplines ranging from psychology to economic geography. In this chapter we create a quantification of the resilience concept based on existing literature and apply a full measurement to ports. By analysing the impact of the 2008-2009 economic shock on maritime port outputs, we find that the underlying cargo groups can for a large part explain the reactions of the different ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range. Furthermore, the chapter revisits the most frequently used hypotheses in the context of resilience in order to create a solid and unambiguous definition of resilience. By offering a full quantification of the concept and applying it to ports, the authors hope to bring a new facet to an already flourishing research field.

Book chapter
World reciew of Intermodal Transportation
Author(s)
Lam Nguyen
Theo Notteboom
Publication

Public-private partnership model selection for dry port development: an application to Vietnam

(2017) WORLD REVIEW OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH. 6(3). p.229-250

This paper aims at building a conceptual framework to support decision makers in selecting the best public-private partnership (PPP) model for dry port development. We focus on a classification of four PPP categories: contracting out, inland terminal concession, field concession and privatised ownership. The framework is based on a multi-criteria analysis with benefit-risk approach. Using multi-stakeholder theory, we break down the benefit hierarchy in benefits to public and community actors, benefits to private investors and financiers and benefits to dry port users. We also present a typology on the risk management ability of each model at the macro, meso and micro levels. The proposed framework is applied to the Vinh Phuc ICD project in Vietnam. In the case study, the four PPP models are assessed on their suitability and risk profile to find the preferred PPP model. The robustness of the outcomes is further tested using a sensitivity analysis.

Marine policy
Author(s)
Jennifer Durden
Laura Lallier
Kevin Murphy
Aline Jaeckel
Kristina Gjerde
Daniel O.B. Jones
Publication

Environmental Impact Assessment process for deep-sea mining in ‘the Area’

Marine Policy, Volume 87, January 2018, Pages 194–202

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is key to the robust environmental management of industrial projects; it is used to anticipate, assess and reduce environmental and social risks of a project. It is instrumental in project planning and execution, and often required for financing and regulatory approval to be granted. The International Seabed Authority currently requires an EIA for deep-sea mining (DSM) in areas beyond national jurisdiction (the Area), but the existing regulations present only a portion of a robust EIA process. This article presents an ideal EIA process for DSM, drawing upon the application of EIA from allied industries. It contains screening, scoping and assessment phases, along with the development of an environmental management plan. It also includes external review by experts, stakeholder consultation, and regulatory review. Lessons learned from application of EIA elsewhere are discussed in relation to DSM, including the integration of EIA into UK domestic law, and the reception of EIAs prepared for seabed ore extraction in the Exclusive Economic Zones of New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Finally, four main challenges of implementing the EIA process to DSM in the Area are presented: 1) EIA process for DSM needs to incorporate mechanisms to address uncertainty; 2) detailed requirements for the EIA process phases should be made clear; 3) mechanisms are needed to ensure that the EIA influences decision making; and, 4) the EIA process requires substantial input and involvement from the regulator.

Article
Sustainability
Author(s)
Liehui Wang
Theo Notteboom
Yui-yip Lau
Adolf Ng
Publication

Functional differentiation and sustainability : a new stage of development in the Chinese container port system

(2017) SUSTAINABILITY. 9(3).

Adjacent ports played a significant role in the evolution of the port system. In our study, we selected five pairs (i.e., Dalian–Yingkou, Qingdao–Yantai, Shanghai–Ningbo, Xiamen–Quanzhou, and Shenzhen–Guangzhou) of the most important adjacent ports in China to reveal the recent trend of China unique port system development; how and why will port system development be de-concentrated; and integrate the conceptual modal into in-depth analysis. The major findings are as follows: (1) There is functional differentiation in adjacent ports. To some big ports’ sustainability, they focus on foreign trade while other small ports, in order to achieve sustainable development, they focus on domestic trade; (2) First-mover advantage and dislocation competition is a mechanism of China ports functional differentiation; (3) Shanghai and Ningbo are unique in that both ports are similarly focused on foreign trade because they both have deep-water harbors, excellent geographical location, export-oriented hinterland economy, and close foreign investment  relationships.

Article
Transportation Research
Author(s)
Giovanni Satta
Theo Notteboom
Francesco Parola
Luca Persico
Publication

Determinants of the long-term performance of initial public offerings (IPOs) in the port industry

(2017) TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART A-POLICY AND PRACTICE . 103. p.135-153

Market players active in the port industry deploy a range of financial sources to meet the growing investment requirements in port infrastructure and to fund their (overseas) expansion strategies. Recent empirical evidence shows that equity capital markets are expected to extend their role in this regard. This paper deals with the long-term performance of IPOs in the seaport industry as a strategic financial dimension for determining the success/failure of the issuance. The study goes beyond general finance theories on IPO performance as it places institutional theory side by side with informational asymmetry theories and symmetric information theories to assess the determinants of long term IPOs’ success in the port domain. The paper presents an overarching conceptual framework for addressing IPO performance, thereby focusing on the explanatory power of ‘‘financial markets”, ‘‘institutional factors” and ‘‘industry specific variables”. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis is performed on a dataset of over 90 port-related IPOs to test the antecedents of the long-term performance of port-related IPOs. The performance of extant IPOs is expected to influence both the capacity of ports and terminal operating companies to gather additional financial resources from equity capital markets in the future, and the related cost of funding. In addition, it may shape the attitude of private investors toward this equity asset class.
 

Article
Strategic interactions
Author(s)
Zacharoula Kyriazi
Publication

Strategic interactions in the marine spatial planning game : observation, interpretation and integration

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) refers to an adaptive, science-based approach that analyses current and future issues of marine and coastal areas, assesses trade-offs  between these uses, and allocates space among them in a way that maximizes societal benefits. The MSP process involves stakeholders or actors that usually act strategically by adopting competitive and/or cooperative strategies in order to ensure a specific size (and location) of area they can claim after it has proved suitable for the development at stake. By adopting either strategy there is an expected pay-off, i.e. a spatial allocation that gives an amount of benefit to these actors, as well as to society as a whole.

Dissertation
Tijdschrift voor Internationale Handel en Transportrecht
Author(s)
Eduard Somers
Publication

Hulpverlening aan een binnenschip en inzonderheid de vaststelling van het bedrag van het hulploon

Article
MaPSIS 2017
Author(s)
Zacharoula Kyriazi
Publication

Marine spatial conflict resolution based on cooperative game theoretic decision rules : the what, the why and the how

Conference MaPSIS, Maritime Spatial Planning, Ecosystem Approach and Supporting Information Systems,  Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, 24-28/04/2018.

Conference abstract
Journal of Environmental Management
Author(s)
Zacharoula Kyriazi
Raul Lejano
Frank Maes
Steven Degraer
Publication

A Cooperative Game-Theoretic Framework for Negotiating Marine Spatial Allocation Agreements among Heterogeneous Players

Journal of Environmental Management, volume 187, 2017, pp. 444-455

Marine spatial allocation has become, in recent decades, a political flashpoint, fuelled by political power struggles, as well as the continuously increasing demand for marine space by both traditional and emerging marine uses. To effectively address this issue, we develop a decision-making procedure, that facilitates the distribution of disputed areas of specific size among heterogeneous players in a transparent and ethical way, while considering coalitional formations through coexistence. To do this, we model players' alternative strategies and payoffs within a cooperative game-theoretic framework. Depending on whether transferable utility (TU) or non-transferable utility (NTU) is the more appropriate assumption, we illustrate the use of the TU Shapley value and the Lejano's fixed point NTU Shapley value to solve for the ideal allocations. The applicability and effectiveness of the process has been tested in a case study area, the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation in the North Sea, which involves three totally or partially conflicting activities, i.e. fishing, nature conservation and wind farm development. The findings demonstrate that the process is capable of providing a unique, fair and equitable division of space Finally, among the two solution concepts proposed the fixed point NTU Shapley value manages to better address the heterogeneity of the players and thus to provide a more socially acceptable allocation that favours the weaker player, while demonstrating the importance of the monetary valuation attributed by each use to the area.

Article
Journal of Tranport
Author(s)
Theo Notteboom
Francesco Parola
Giovanni Satta
Athanasios A Pallis
Publication

The relationship between port choice and terminal involvement of alliance members in container shipping

(2017) JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT GEOGRAPHY . 64. p.158-173

This paper examines in which ways the changing organizational routines of shipping (i.e., alliance formation and vertical integration in container terminal operations) are affecting the selection of ports of call in intercontinental liner service networks. It first provides a conceptual analysis of the interplay between changes (a) in the organizational routines of shipping lines as part of alliances, (b) the organizational routines at the level of terminal operations (i.e. direct carrier equity involvement in terminal operations) and (c) in port calling patterns. The empirical part examines the relationship between port choice of alliance members and the direct involvement of shipping lines in container terminals in North-West European ports. It does so using binary and non-binary data on the evolution of calling patterns on the North Europe-Far East trade from 2006 to 2017. In addition, the changes in both alliance formation during that period and in the container terminal involvement of carriers in North West European ports are addressed. By examining the relationship between port calling patterns of alliances and the terminal interests of alliance members, the paper addresses an under-researched theme in the extant literature on port choice/selection by carriers. The paper is also of value to port managers and shipping professionals in view of port strategy and planning decisions, as well as shipping strategy formulation.

Article
The Marine Microbiome
Author(s)
Laura Lallier
Arianna Broggiato
Dominic Muyldermans
Thomas Vanagt
Publication

Marine genetic resources and the access and benefit-sharing legal framework

The marine microbiome : an untapped source of biodiversity and biotechnological potential. 2016, p.453-472

The legal landscape regulating the access to and utilization of genetic resources has changed with the entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol in 2014, and the adoption of the related EU Regulation on user compliance in 2014. Moreover, many countries are now adopting laws that regulate access to their genetic resources. This has clear implications for scientists working on genetic resources, including those doing taxonomic and biotechnology research on marine micro-organisms. The first part of this chapter informs the scientific community on the Access and Benefit-Sharing legal framework, including a focus on their application to marine genetic resources, for which the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) is also relevant. The difference between (domestic) access legislation to genetic resources and the compliance mechanisms, such as the Nagoya Protocol and the EU Regulation 511/2014 are explained in detail. A more practical description is then presented in a step-by-step approach, which can serve as a basic guideline for scientists.

Article
Transportation Business and Management
Author(s)
Theo Notteboom
Zhongzhen Yang
Publication

Port governance in China since 2004 : institutional layering and the growing impact of broader policies

(2017) RESEARCH IN TRANSPORTATION BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT. 22. p.184-200

This paper builds further on the work of Cullinane and Wang (2007) and more recent work on (port) governance in China. We argue that the market environment in which Chinese ports operate is quite different compared to ten years ago. The global and domestic economic slowdown and structural changes in the economic base have affected seaport volumes and freight traffic growth. Fears for port capacity shortages have made room for overcapacity. New geo-economic policies such as the ‘Go West’ strategy and the ‘One Belt One Road’ (OBOR) initiative, the implementation of modern corporate governance principles and the establishment of Free Trade Zones (FTZs) are affecting the Chinese container seaport system. The above factors have triggered a number of strategic and managerial implications on Chinese ports: (a) an increased focus on seaport integration and co-operation, (b) a strong orientation on hinterland development through corridors and dry ports, (c) a two-way opening up of the seaport sector by combining initiatives to attract foreign investments and trade to Chinese ports with an internationalisation of Chinese port-related companies. We demonstrate that these changes have triggered processes of institutional layering in port governance without breaking out of the development path initiated by the Port Law of 2004 and related policy initiatives.

Article